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A Nordic diet has positive health benefits, regardless of whether you lose weight or not


March 18, 2022
By Maria Hornbek, University of Copenhagen

Berries, veggies, fish, whole grains, and rapeseed oil are the main ingredients of the Nordic diet concept that, for the past decade, have been recognized as extremely healthy, tasty, and sustainable. The diet can prevent obesity and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol.

Until now, Nordic diet research has primarily been linked to its positive health effect following weight loss. The new analysis shows the benefits go beyond weight.

“It’s surprising because most people believe that positive effects on blood sugar and cholesterol are solely due to weight loss. Here, we have found this not to be the case. Other mechanisms are also at play,” says Lars Ove Dragsted, a researcher and head of section at the University of Copenhagen’s nutrition, exercise, and sports department.

Dragsted and colleagues examined blood and urine samples from 200 people over the age of 50, all with elevated BMI and increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The participants were divided into two groups—one provided foods according to Nordic dietary recommendations and a control group on their habitual diet. After six months of monitoring, the result was clear.

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“The group that had been on the Nordic diet for six months became significantly healthier, with lower cholesterol levels, lower overall levels of both saturated and unsaturated fat in the blood, and better regulation of glucose, compared to the control group,” Dragsted says.

“We kept the group on the Nordic diet weight stable, meaning that we asked them to eat more if they lost weight. Even without weight loss, we could see an improvement in their health.”

Instead of weight loss alone, the researchers point to the unique composition of fats in a Nordic diet as a possible explanation for the significant health benefits.

“By analyzing the blood of participants, we could see that those who benefited most from the dietary change had different fat-soluble substances than the control group,” Dragsted says.

“These are substances that appear to be linked to unsaturated fatty acids from oils in the Nordic diet. This is a sign that Nordic dietary fats probably play the most significant role for the health.

Fats in the Nordic diet come from fish, flaxseeds, sunflower, and rapeseed, among other things. As a whole, they constitute a beneficial mix for the body, although the researchers have yet to accurately explain why these fats seem to lower both blood sugar and cholesterol levels.

“We can only speculate as to why a change in fat composition benefits our health so greatly. However, we can confirm that the absence of highly processed food and less saturated fats from animals, have a very positive effect on us,” Dragsted says.

“So, the fat composition in the Nordic diet, which is higher in omega-3 and omega-6 unsaturated fats, is probably a considerable part of the explanation for the health effects we find from the Nordic diet, even when the weight of participants remains constant.”

The study appears in the journal Clinical Nutrition.

Original Study DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2021.12.031


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