Detailed gait analysis reveals that people with clogged leg arteries rely more on muscles in the back of the calf when they walk to compensate for weakness in certain hip muscles, according to a new study presented at the American Heart Association's Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology/Peripheral Vascular Disease Scientific Sessions 2015.
May 19, 2015 By Massage Therapy Canada staff
This suggests that exercise training to strengthen hip flexor muscles may increase how far patients can walk without calf pain.
artery disease (PAD) is a narrowing of the arteries to the legs and
other parts of the body, which restricts blood flow. It can cause pain,
changes in skin color, sores or ulcers and difficulty walking. Total
loss of circulation to the legs and feet can cause gangrene and loss of a
“PAD patients should ask for an expert, such as a physical
therapist, to evaluate their gait and the strength of their hip flexors
and other muscles. Based on the evaluation, a combination of muscle
training and walking exercise may increase how far they can walk and
reduce their calf pain during walking,” said Takaaki Kakihana, lead
author of the study and a doctoral candidate at Tohoku Graduate School
of Medicine in Sendai, Japan.
Researchers used a
three-dimensional motion analysis system to compare the walking patterns
of seven healthy people with 16 patients (average age 71), who had
moderately blocked leg arteries and leg pain in one or both legs when
The investigators found the PAD patients had abnormal gaits and they:
• walked more slowly, even when trying to walk quickly;
• took smaller steps at both walking speeds;
used their hip flexor muscles less during the push-off phase of each
step (when the heel has risen but the toe is still on the ground);
• used their ankle flexor muscles more during the push-off phase.
older people have relatively weaker ankle flexors and use their hip
flexors more during the push-off phase of walking. People with PAD use
their ankle flexors more to compensate for hip muscle weakness,”
Hip flexors are located at the front of the thigh
and lift the leg with a pulling motion during the push-off phase of each
step. Ankle flexors, are in the back of the calf and lift the leg with a
“It is unclear why the hip flexors are weak in
PAD patients. We predict that it is from disuse and blood flow
restriction to the muscles,” Kakihana said.
strengthen the hip flexors include: straight-leg lifts while lying on
the back (keeping the other leg bent with foot on the floor); and
raising and holding one knee toward the chest while seated.
The research was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science KAKENHI.
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